UBUD is located amongst rice paddies and steep ravines in the central foothills of Gianyar regency. One of Bali’s major arts and culture centers, it has developed a large tourism industry. Ubud has a population of about 30.000 people, but it is becoming difficult to distinguish the town itself from the village surround it.
In the 18th century legend tells of a Javanese priest, Rsi Markendya, who meditated at the confluence of two rivers at the locality of champuan. Here he founded the Gunung lebah temple on the valley floor, the site of which remains a pilgrim destination. The town was originally important as a source of medicinal herbs and plants; Ubud gets its name from the Balinese word Ubad( medicine ).
In the 19th century, Ubud become the seat of feudal lords who owed their allegiance to the King of Gianyar, at one time the most powerful Bali’s southern state. They were the member of the satrya family of Sukawati, and were significant supporters of the villages’ increasingly renowned art scene.
Tourism on the island developed after the arrival of Walter spies, and ethnic German born in Russia who taught painting and music, and dabbled in dance. Spies and foreign painters Willem Hofker and Rudolf bonnet entertained celebrities including Charlie Chaplin, Noel coward, Barbara Hutton, H.G. Wells and Vicki Baum.
They brought in some of the greatest artist from all over Bali to teach and train the Balinese arts, helping Ubud become the cultural center of Bali.
A new burst of creative energy came in the 1960’s in the wake of Dutch painter Arie Smit (1916), and development of the young Artist Movement. There are many museum in Ubud, including the museum Puri Lukisan, Museum Neka, and the Agung Rai Museum of Art.
The Ubud Palace
The main street in Jalan Raya Ubud, which runs east-west through the center of town. Two long roads, Jalan Monkey forest and Jalan Hanoman, extend south from Jalan raya Ubud. Puri Saren Agung is a large palace located at the intersection on mongkey forest and Raya Ubud Roads. The home of Tjokorda Gede Agung Sukawati (1910-1978), the last KING of Ubud, It is now occupied by his descendant and the dance performance are held in its courtyard. It is also one of the Ubud first Hotel dated back to the 1930’s.
Gua Gajah which located in the west side of Bedulu countryside, Blah Batuh Sub district and gianyar regency. It is about 27 km from Denpasar town. This cave is buildt at the crevasse edge from the federation of 2 rills that is called Pangkung River, where the irrigation mixed with Petanu river flow. It is called campuhan/mixture. It owns the magical energy on the basis of RWAbineda concept/ two different matters on this basic concept hence Gua Gajah is the intentionally built among two rivers.
The words Goa Gajah came from the word Lwa Gajah, the name of BUDDHIST temple of hermitage for Buddhist monk. It is written on Negara kertagama papyrus which is compiled by Mpu Prapanca on 1365 M. Lwa or lwah / loh mean the river and it reflect to the meaning that the hermitage is located at Gajah river or in Air Gajah. In the year inscription 944 Saka, It is mentioned with the name of’ ser ring Air Gajah’ that is meaning the subak leade in Air Gajah. The word has mention that the hermitage of Lwa Gajah is located in Subak Air Gajah.
What to see :
There is a relief which is almost looking like the form of mountain on the entrance of the cave. It was carved many designed on the relief like grove with the stick, close leaf, animal for example forest pig, tortoise and specters. The cave mouth is decorated by the bas-relief with the eye turn around the right or west side. There is an article letter of Kediri type from the early of 11 century was written on the wall left side or east side. There is a pool as a place to take the holy water for Hindu ceremony which is located in the middle of the cave courtyard. It was founded by Krijgsman from Ancient department on the 1954. It is equipped by the douche which is parallel arranged in two groups.
Gunung Kawi is a Hindu temple complex with old omission from the stone era located in the Gianyar regency. Based on the inscription of tengkulak A on 945 Saka ( Balinese Calender ) which is released by Marakata King, the ancient omission is located at the pakerisan river then it is called Katyangan Amarawati. It is also name by Jalu which is according to the inscription chiseled on the above of the biggest temple door sound” Haji Lumahing Jalu”. The name of Gunung Kawi is the name given on the omission which is related to the complex of the temples because the temple on this area is like the symbol from the mount.
There are 3 temples called Gunung Kawi: * Gunung Kawi in Sebatu country side, Gunung Kawi in Keliki and Gunung Kawi in Babitra country side. Guning Kawi omission were founded on the 10th century at the era of Udayana King 989 M. Marakata Governance on 1023 ( Katyagan Amarawati) is developed and continue by the governance of Anak Wungsu which is guess lead between the year of 1049-1077 M.

The ancient omission complex
It is consisted of 2 types:
a. Temple complex.
Is consisted of 2 consecutions. In the East side Of Pakerisan River are 5 units and the west side are 5 units, North are 4 units and Far south 1 units separate from the others.’ HAHI LUMAHING JALU’ mean this temple are dedicated to Udayana King which is also called Marakata and Anak Wungsu. The west side of the temple are related to the King concubines. The far south is attributed to prime minister because in this temple existing an article Rakyan which is namely perform for high functionary of Empire.
b. Buddhist temple complex
Buddhist temple complex is used as a residence and as a place for meditation. It is consisted of some nooks and it is located in the cross east of Pakerisan river. Other nooks are located spread out and near the temple bunch.
Gunung Kawi is a famous tourist destination in Bali with its ancient omission so that this placeis right to visit during your vacation in the island.
It is a holy spring temple located in the Tampak siring Village, Gianyar regency and it is around 39 km eastwards from Denpasar town. It is set in the dale and encircle by the hill. In the west side is the Indonesian Palace which is has been founded by the first president of Indonesia. The name of the Tirta empul is loaded in the inscription which is kept at sakenan temple, Manukaya village, sub district of Tampak siring, about 3 km from Tirta empul temple. In this inscription, the Tirta empul is name by the TIRTA Ri Air Hampul and then the name has changed into Tirta Hampul and finally become tirta Empul. Tirta Ri Hampul mean the water emerge from the land.
The wellspring emerges from the land is believed that it is the infinite creation. According to the history, that this water source is arrange and sanctified by King Indrajayasinghawarmadewa in the year 882 Saka ( 960 M). He has given the name with Tirta Ri air Hampul. In Tirta empul is also found an archaeology omission like Colossus Yoni, Arca Lion, Tepasana and Tirta Empul pool.
According to Papyrus of Usana Bali the Tirta empul was created by Bhatara Indra, when bearing arms against the arrogant King called Maya Denawa. He denounces himself as a GOD and stops all the local tradition to pray to God. Finally Bthara Indra gives the battle against the Kings that happened in Tampak Siring and then Mayadenawa is gone to the wall and disappear. And he created poison and places it on the river and killed the army of Bhatara Indra. And then Bhata Indra stick the weapon of Umbul Umbul and finally the water emerging from the land and called Tirta Empul and then passed to the dead and faint soldier that make them back to Live. Therefore this pool is sanctified by Hindu people in Bali and they believe that this water source can heal several of disease.